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Operation Pillar of Defense (2012)

An Israeli military operation in the Gaza Strip, conducted in November 2012, consisting mostly of airstrikes against alleged Hamas targets. Israel claimed the operation was in response to sustained rocket fire from the Strip, as well as attempted ground assaults via tunnels, while Hamas and other organizations were aiming at lifting the blockade on the Strip that had been in place since 2007. This was the first major confrontation in the Gaza Strip since the Gaza War (Operation Cast Lead) in 2008-9. Despite making preparations for a ground operation, Israeli forces did not enter the Strip, and the fighting ended after a week with understandings that included a ceasefire and a partial opening of the crossings into Gaza.
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