A speech given by US President Barack Obama at Cairo University on 4 June 2009. … He called on Palestinians to abandon violence and focus on state-building, and for both sides to pursue progress in the peace process, also citing the Arab Peace Initiative and the possible role for Arab countries in the process.
A war between a US-led coalition and Iraq that began with the coalition's invasion of the latter on 20 March 2003. … However, the following years were characterized by insurgency campaigns led by both Baathist loyalists and other militant forces, which continued after the withdrawal of US combat troops, completed in 2011.
A proposal made by Russian Foreign Minister Evgeni Primakov in Cairo, Egypt, on 31 October 1997, calling on countries in the Middle East to adopt a "code of conduct" in security matters that would assist in promoting a comprehensive settlement.